Before completing the main body of the questionnaire, the questionnaire is divided into 9 sections, each examining different aspects of behaviours within cricket. All answers will be kept anonymous. The results will be used as a collective, not mentioning any names or the club you are playing for or have played for, maintaining anonymity. Please answer all questions honestly and in as much depth as possible especially concerning questions 36, 37 and 38.
Section 1 - Background Information
Name

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* 1. Name

Age

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* 2. Age

Years of Cricket Experience 

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* 3. Years of Cricket Experience 

Years of cricket experience where an independent umpire has officiated your games?

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* 4. Years of cricket experience where an independent umpire has officiated your games?

Highest Level of Cricket Played

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* 5. Highest Level of Cricket Played

This questionnaire is about identifying behaviours within cricket, specifically those that occur on the field of play. There are seven behaviours addressed within this questionnaire, please answer each question using the Likert scale ranging from never – always, within your career whilst playing cricket. 

There are 7 behaviour sections including, Pro-Social behaviour, Anger, Deception, False Appealing, Psychological Violence, Excessive Appealing and Aggression. Each section contains between 3-6 questions, overall there are 38 questions taking no more than 10 mins to complete.

Please answer honestly and in full detail for the last three questions, there are no correct or incorrect answers.

Section 2 - Pro-Social Behaviour 

Pro-Social behaviour is defined as a voluntary positive social behaviour, directed towards an individual or group (umpires) that is not motivated by personal obligation but may result in positive social consequences.
Have you ever deliberately made attempts to be nice to umpires?

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* 6. Have you ever deliberately made attempts to be nice to umpires?

How regularly have you or one of your teammates been nice to umpires in hopes you will get decisions your way?

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* 7. How regularly have you or one of your teammates been nice to umpires in hopes you will get decisions your way?

Have you ever witness an umpire give a decision in your teams favour but pinned it down as a reward due to your nice behaviour?

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* 8. Have you ever witness an umpire give a decision in your teams favour but pinned it down as a reward due to your nice behaviour?

Section 3 - Anger

Anger is a negative toned emotion that occurs when an individual’s ego-identity is at stake, usually under a condition of threat. In cricket, provocation from an opponent, negative self-talk, coach, official and spectators may originate anger in an individual. The individual won’t act physically upon this behaviour but instead express this through grunts, being loud and verbal anger.
Have you ever experienced feelings of anger after an umpire’s decision has been made?

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* 9. Have you ever experienced feelings of anger after an umpire’s decision has been made?

How often have you witnessed one of your teammates express anger on a cricket pitch?

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* 10. How often have you witnessed one of your teammates express anger on a cricket pitch?

Have you ever directed anger towards the umpire after a particular decision or consequently witnessed a teammate do this?

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* 11. Have you ever directed anger towards the umpire after a particular decision or consequently witnessed a teammate do this?

If you or the other performer expressed this anger, did you notice a change with the umpire's decision making?

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* 12. If you or the other performer expressed this anger, did you notice a change with the umpire's decision making?

In regards to question 12, Were the umpires reluctant to give a decision in your favour?

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* 13. In regards to question 12, Were the umpires reluctant to give a decision in your favour?

Section 4 - Deception

This section will be asking questions concerning Deception in a cricket game.   Deception is a physical act that is not lying nor cheating. For example a batsman may not walk after hitting the ball in the air to the wicket keeper or fielder, or when a fielder urgently throws the ball back to the keeper after it has crossed the boundary line and lastly claiming a catch when the fielder is aware that it has bounced first. Deception is a form of Gamesmanship.

Gamesmanship is defined as putting your opponents at a disadvantage through the use of certain behaviours such as, sledging, not walking, claiming a catch that was grounded or trying to unnerve the opponent. All these behaviours result in negative consequences for the opponents and exaggerate the absence of fair play.
Have you ever not walked after knowing that you have edged the ball through to the wicket keeper or when a fielder has claimed a catch?

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* 14. Have you ever not walked after knowing that you have edged the ball through to the wicket keeper or when a fielder has claimed a catch?

Have you or has one of your teammates claimed a catch knowing that the ball has been grounded before celebrating?

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* 15. Have you or has one of your teammates claimed a catch knowing that the ball has been grounded before celebrating?

Have you or has one of your teammates ever thrown the ball in from the boundary knowing that the ball has touched/ crossed the line beforehand?

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* 16. Have you or has one of your teammates ever thrown the ball in from the boundary knowing that the ball has touched/ crossed the line beforehand?

Section 5 - False Appealing

False appealing, is an individual who appeals with optimism intending to get the batsman out through the mistake of the umpire, knowing that the batsman is not out.
Have you ever falsely appealed knowing that the batsman is not out, hoping for a decision your way when it shouldn’t be?

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* 17. Have you ever falsely appealed knowing that the batsman is not out, hoping for a decision your way when it shouldn’t be?

Have you or has any of your teammates made attempts to intimidate the umpire through loud false appealing in order to get a wicket?

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* 18. Have you or has any of your teammates made attempts to intimidate the umpire through loud false appealing in order to get a wicket?

Have you ever appealed for a wicket and won the appeal knowing that the batsman was not out?

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* 19. Have you ever appealed for a wicket and won the appeal knowing that the batsman was not out?

Section 6 - Psychological Violence

Psychological Violence is when one or more performers negatively implement stress and the scare of physical harm upon a game official(s).
Have you ever made attempts to appeal loudly in order to scare the umpire or to intimidate them in order to get a decision your way?

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* 20. Have you ever made attempts to appeal loudly in order to scare the umpire or to intimidate them in order to get a decision your way?

In regards to the question before: Have you ever been encouraged to undertake such behaviours?

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* 21. In regards to the question before: Have you ever been encouraged to undertake such behaviours?

Have you or have your teammates ever argued with an umpire about a previous decision that didn’t go your/their way, in order to make them more aware that they are umpiring poorly to entice the next decision to be granted your way?

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* 22. Have you or have your teammates ever argued with an umpire about a previous decision that didn’t go your/their way, in order to make them more aware that they are umpiring poorly to entice the next decision to be granted your way?

Have you ever threatened physical violence over a dispute regarding a previous decision or to threaten so that the next decision will be in favour of your team?

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* 23. Have you ever threatened physical violence over a dispute regarding a previous decision or to threaten so that the next decision will be in favour of your team?

Have you or has a teammate frustrated the umpire with persistent arguing, causing the umpire to become stressed?

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* 24. Have you or has a teammate frustrated the umpire with persistent arguing, causing the umpire to become stressed?

In regards to the question before: If yes, How often?

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* 25. In regards to the question before: If yes, How often?

Section 7 - Excessive Appealing

Similar to false appealing however considers the frequency at which an individual appeals, its intended to intimidate umpires to give decisions when the batsman is rightfully not out.
Have you ever carried out excessive appealing, regardless of whether it’s out, hoping that one decision may come your way?

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* 26. Have you ever carried out excessive appealing, regardless of whether it’s out, hoping that one decision may come your way?

In regards to the question before: If yes, How often? 

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* 27. In regards to the question before: If yes, How often? 

How regularly have you been warned by the umpire for excessive appealing?

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* 28. How regularly have you been warned by the umpire for excessive appealing?

How often have you suggested to your teammates that excessive appealing could be a strategy in picking up more wickets?

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* 29. How often have you suggested to your teammates that excessive appealing could be a strategy in picking up more wickets?

Have you or has a teammate ever identified a particular umpire that is potentially weak when players over appeal/ more likely to get decisions your way?

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* 30. Have you or has a teammate ever identified a particular umpire that is potentially weak when players over appeal/ more likely to get decisions your way?

Section 8 - Aggression/ Aggressive Behaviour

Aggression can be defined as a form of behaviour that is directed towards bringing harm or injury to another living being. Aggression can be verbal or physical, but has to be directed towards another person rather than an inanimate object
Have you or has a teammate ever become aggressive towards teammates, opposition or officials in a game of cricket before?

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* 31. Have you or has a teammate ever become aggressive towards teammates, opposition or officials in a game of cricket before?

In regards to the question before: If yes, How often?

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* 32. In regards to the question before: If yes, How often?

Have you or has one of your teammates previously argued with an umpire implementing aggressive behaviour?

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* 33. Have you or has one of your teammates previously argued with an umpire implementing aggressive behaviour?

Have you ever thrown kit around after a decision has been given against you?

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* 34. Have you ever thrown kit around after a decision has been given against you?

Have you or has one of your teammates ever deliberately thrown the ball at the batsman when they are running between the wicket in attempts to cause bodily harm?

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* 35. Have you or has one of your teammates ever deliberately thrown the ball at the batsman when they are running between the wicket in attempts to cause bodily harm?

Section 9 - General Questions
In regards to your experience performing cricket, list the three most common behaviours you have experienced the most.

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* 36. In regards to your experience performing cricket, list the three most common behaviours you have experienced the most.

When you have experienced these behaviours, how would you like the umpire to manage them?

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* 37. When you have experienced these behaviours, how would you like the umpire to manage them?

What suggestions could you recommend to help improve cricketing behaviours to make the game friendlier but keep competitiveness?

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* 38. What suggestions could you recommend to help improve cricketing behaviours to make the game friendlier but keep competitiveness?

The questionnaire has now been completed. Thank you very much for your time!

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